Nanoparticles have been proposed for several biomedical applications; however, in vivo biodistribution studies to confirm their potential are scarce. Nanodiamonds are carbon nanoparticles that have been recently proposed as a promising biomaterial. In this study, we labeled nanodiamonds with (18)F to study their in vivo biodistribution by positron emission tomography. Moreover, the impact on the biodistribution of their kinetic particle size and of the surfactant agents has been evaluated. Radiolabeled diamond nanoparticles accumulated mainly in the lung, spleen, and liver and were excreted into the urinary tract. The addition of surfactant agents did not lead to significant changes in this pattern, with the exception of a slight reduction in the urinary excretion rate. On the other hand, after filtration of the radiolabeled diamond nanoparticles to remove those with a larger kinetic size, the uptake in the lung and spleen was completely inhibited and significantly reduced in the liver.