Glutathione degradable polyurethane-polyurea nanoparticles (PUUa NP) with a disulfide-rich multiwalled structure and a cyclic RGD peptide as a targeting moiety were synthesized, incorporating a very lipophilic chemotherapeutic drug named Plitidepsin. In vitro studies indicated that encapsulated drug maintained and even improved its cytotoxic activity while in vivo toxicity studies revealed that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Plitidepsin could be increased three-fold after encapsulation. We also found that pharmacokinetic parameters such as maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC) and plasma half-life were significantly improved for Plitidepsin loaded in PUUa NP. Moreover, biodistribution assays in mice showed that RGD-decorated PUUa NP accumulate less in spleen and liver than non-targeted conjugates, suggesting that RGD-decorated nanoparticles avoid sequestration by macrophages from the reticuloendothelial system. Overall, our results indicate that polyurethane-polyurea nanoparticles represent a very valuable nanoplatform for the delivery of lipophilic drugs by improving their toxicological, pharmacokinetic and whole-body biodistribution profiles.